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Dimaxian - Horizontal drilling technology. For all practical purposes and for formulation of development scheme in 6 sq. Once this required angle is achieved, it should be held constant and a tangent section is to be drilled through all and a sump of about 50 m. Setting of 7" casing up to desired depth. Cut window 6. After building up of the angle from 70 to about 90 or little more as per requirement drilling of horizontal drain hole along the object coal seam using under balanced drilling techniques with 6"bit.. Drilling of side laterals multilaterals from the main lateral Drain hole.

Maximum length of Main lateral Drain hole to be drilled - m. Length of each side lateral - m. Distance between two consecutive side laterals - m. Drilling of two oppositely heading side laterals from the same point on the main lateral Drain hole. Accordingly drilling of b side laterals 2 x 3 from 3 points on the Main lateral has been envisaged. Average angle between the main lateral and each side lateral has been taken as 45o Average.

Each well will handle completion against three coal seam objects, which are 50 - m apart and are separated from each other by a non-coal parting. Up the dip -drilling of the Drain hole Main lateral portion has been considered as a preferred method. Incase of intersection of the main lateral with a normal fault, having more than 20m throw, possibility of further drilling along the fault plane to trace the same coal seam on the other side of the fault at a deeper depth has not been thought of.

Considering all the above assumptions, the lateral Drain hole maximum cumulative meterage of horizontal main drilling in each coal seam has been worked out to range from m - m whereas maximum meterage of 6 horizontal side laterals has been worked out to be about m. As each well will handle 3 object seams of one pack, the maximum cumulative horizontal coverage within. Considerations for Completion: a Once drilling network i. The Proposed Development Plan Considering all the technical requirements of the Horizontal - Inseam - Multilateral drilling technique, it has been observed that for full scale development of all the 9 object coal seams in the central part 6 sq.

These 20 wells are distributed in such a manner that the, main laterals and the side laterals create maximum exposure of each object coal seam to the well bores leading to maximum extraction of in-place CBM resource from the said area. Pack-wise distribution of the indicated 20 Development Wells is summarized below:.

Suitability of the Horizontal inseam multilateral drilling technology for extracting CBM from the poor permeability Indian Gondwana coal of Permfan, age is unknown. Moreover, permeability of the thick lower Barakar coal seams is found to be even poorer. In view of this, it is proposed under the current Development plan, which is to be giving on service contract, to initially take up drilling and completion jobs of only 14 wells out 'of 20 horizontal well locations identified, to test the applicability of the technology in the present geological setup, to practically experience its effectiveness in coals with low to very low permeability and to observe the magnitude of increase in deliverability.

Once these factors are ascertained and in the case of obtaining favorable results from these wells, drilling and completion jobs of the remaining 6 wells may be taken up in future. Pack-wise distribution of the 14 Development Wells, proposed for initial drilling and completion activities under the current development plan is summarized below:. For Upper Pack - All 6 Wells, identified b. For Middle Pack - 6, out of 7 Wells identified. For Lower Pack - 2, out of 7 Wells identified.

Results of individual zone testing against two Lower Barakar object coal seams viz. Combining the above observations and considering about 10 to 15 times hike in production performance by the use of horizontal in-seam multilateral drilling and completion techniques, production rate per day from the nine object coal seams, grouped under 3 packs, have been estimated. Measurement of permeability of the object coal seams by well tests in the 3 exploratory wells in Parbatpur area shows a trend of reduction in permeability with increase in depth as given below: Permeability of the seams-XV, XIV A 8, XIV which are clubbed under Upper Pack in the current scheme, range from 1.

Based on the above observations, a tentative allocation of permeability against the 9 object coal seams have been made as follows for the purpose of assessing deliverability of each seam: Seams under Upper pack - Average assumed Permeability 1. Seams under Middle pack- Average assumed Permeability 1. Seams under Lower pack - Average assumed Permeability 0. Laboratory analysis revealed six middle Barakar coal seams, under upper and middle packs of the current development scheme, to have better type and quality than the lower Barakar seams, of lower pack.

It is assumed that the lesser gas content and poorer permeability of the seams, under lower pack, may be compensated to some extent by their huge thickness, which ultimately imparts betterment in terms of their kh values and thereby aid improving their production efficiencies. Based on the above mentioned considerations, the co-mingled productivity per day from each Development Well, under current plan, are tentatively allocated as follows: Each well, which will be completed in the three coal seams viz.

Each well, which will be completed in the three coal seams viz. From preliminary tentative production projection analysis the following production pattern is anticipated. The above mentioned per day gas production rate from 14 wells will sustain for a period of initial 3 years. In this manner cumulative gas production from 14 Development wells in 20 years life cycle of the project has been estimated to be of the order of 3.

Apart from the gas production projection, water production estimation has also been done as follows based on the present experience of water production of the existing Exploratory Wells of Parbatpur area. Accordingly, initial requirements under surface facilities viz. Implementation Schedule The execution of entire project is planned for 31 months including creation of surface facilities, but excluding 12 months of maintenance of the wells after putting on regular production.

The schedule of project implementation shall be as follows: Date Activity Commercial production of gas from 5 wells 0. Gas rate 0. Tender for Integrated Turnkey Contract is floated. All 14 early pilot locations stand released after their firming up, staking and ground checking.

Amplifier v. 14, no. 11; (, May 29) by Montana Tech Library - Issuu

Land acquisition work for different drill sites and GCS area Under progress. Environment clearance in progress. Status of Environment and other Statutory, clearances:. All other statutory clearances from state govt, local bodies etc. Prior to Survey, letters seeking expression of Interest were sent to major consumers from different sections of user industries. Based on interest shown the following were called for discussions to understand their requirements, details of various energy sources used by them, a comparative cost to the consumers, gauge their interest and price affordability.

The following end-uses of CBM has been suggested. They are as follows. DVC Maithon is having it Gas Turbine station at Maithon in idle condition due to high costs of liquid fuel it was using earlier. The turbine at present can be operated in open cycle mode. The installation of combined cycle system will make the valuation of CBM even more attractive. The total. However, there is no concrete development on this front as of-now. Power industry is gradually getting deregulated and any party is now allowed to generate power for commercial purpose. There is shortage of power in Jharkhand in general and it would be possible to market power in the region.

Power Trading Corporation of India has offered a rate of Rs. However, the financial projections have assumed the sale of entire production to SAIL as a scenario. This is due to the fact that SAIL has conveyed their readiness to purchase the entire projected production of 0. The breakup of the project costs is given below. In Crores The details of the individual cost heads are given in Annexure- I.

The year wise breakup of capex schedule is as follows. Capex Schedule including contingenciesin Rs. Crores The year wise detailed breakup of Capex schedule is given in Annexure II. The total project cost is proposed to be met by internal accruals as ONGC has surplus cash funds.

The price has been assumed on the basis of the price fixed by the Government in the case of Panna Mukti Tapti consortium. A brief profitability statement under this scenario is as follows. However, it is expected that ONGC would be able to negotiate better price as it will be setting the distribution network for the same on its own cost. The capital expenditure in this case assumes an additional investment of Rs.

The operating expenses have also been suitably adjusted to account for the fuel consumption by compressor and other expenses relating to the maintenance of the pipeline. The brief profitability statement for this scenario is as follows. PBP No. The project is- envisaged to be funded totally by internal accruals. In this scenario, project is commercially viable under. However, the scenarios of decline in price had the biggest impact on the financial indicators.

The above analysis shows that the project is financially viable under most of the scenarios that could have a negative impact on the profitability of the project. Therefore, the pricing of the gas is critical for the project to be viable. It is expected that ONGC would be able to negotiate for a better price, as.

Also, if the recovery factor of the gas is improved leading to improved production volumes, the viability of the project can be further enhanced. The contract would also be stipulating adequate liquidated damages payable to ONGC in the event of any failure to comply. The four exploratory wells drilled by ONGC in , have been taken as key wells for estimating gas content and gas saturation characteristics. ONGC is. This project is first of its kind in India, Hence, no such risk is envisaged. However, on assessing the competition with substitute like coal or coke, CBM turn out to be superior and cheaper.

The extraction of Coal Bed Methane leads to generation of watering of coal beds and therefore, its salline and cannot be concerned. This water is neither suited for irrigation. The deployment of water still needs to be addressed. Currently, the water is supposed to the drained within the coal field area.

The Government of India is actively CBM development as it will help meet the growing demand of natural gas in the country. It is expected that regulatory stance would be favorable for CBM in the years to come. The natural greenhouse effect is desirable as it traps part of the incoming solar energy to maintain habitable temperatures on, the earth's surface. However, human activities, like. Impacts are likely to include changes in precipitation patterns, increased frequency and intensity of storms surges and hurricanes, changes in vegetation, and a rise in sea level.

Developing countries, especially the poor ones, are more vulnerable to these changes given their high dependence on natural resources and their limited capacity-human, financial, and institutional-to adapt to extreme events. Climate changes can have severe adverse impacts on the health and livelihood of the poor. Extreme climate conditions exacerbated by climate change can, divert scarce development resources from poverty reduction into disaster recovery.

Amidst growing concern and increasing awareness on the need for pollution control, the concept of carbon credit came into vogue as part of an international agreement, popularly known as the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon credits are certificates Issued to countries that reduce their-emission of GHG, which causes global warming. The concept of carbon credit trading seeks to encourage countries to reduce their GHG emissions, as it rewards those countries which meet their targets and provides financial incentives to others to do so as quickly as possible.

Surplus credits collected by overshooting the emission reduction target can be sold! One credit is equivalent to one tonne. Carbon Credits CC are available for companies engaged in developing renewable energy projects that offset the use of fossil fuels.

In countries like India, GHG emission is. Much below the target fixed by Kyoto Protocol and so, they are excluded from reduction of GHG emission. On the contrary, they are entitled to sell surplus credits to developed countries. It is here that trading takes place. Foreign companies who cannot fulfil the protocol norms can buy the surplus credit from companies in other countries through trading. CC trading can also take place in the open market. European countries and Japan are the major buyers of carbon credit. The Kyoto Protocol provides for three mechanisms that enable developed countries with quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments to acquire greenhouse gas reduction credits.

Under JI, a developed country with relatively higher costs of domestic greenhouse reduction would set up a project in another developed country, which has a relatively low cost. Under CDM, a developed country can take up a greenhouse gas reduction project, activity , in a developing country where the cost of GHG reduction project activities is usually much lower. The developed country would be given credits for meeting its emission reduction targets, while the developing, country would receive the capital and clean technology to implement the project.

Under IET mechanism, countries can trade in the international carbon credit market. There are four stages of CDM approval. Thereafter, certification is done for the reduction in emission and credits are issued. The project proposal should establish the following in order to qualify for consideration as CDM project activity: Emission Additionality; The project should lead to real, measurable and long term GHG mitigation, The additional GHG reductions are to be calculated with reference to a baseline. Baseline is the scenario, which represents the emissions by sources of GHGs that would occur in the absence of the registered project activity.

Sustainable Development Indicators - It is the prerogative of the host Party to confirm whether a clean development mechanism project activity assists It In achieving sustainable development. The CDM projects should also be oriented towards Improving the quality of life of the poor from the environmental standpoint. The CDM project activity should lead to alleviation of poverty by generating additional employment, removal of social disparities and contribution to provision of basic amenities to people leading to improvement in quality of life of people.

Economic well-being; The CDM project activity should bring in additional investment consistent with the needs of the people. Environmental well being: This should include a discussion of impact of the project activity on resource sustainability and resource degradation, if any, due to proposed activity; bio-diversity friendliness; impact on human?

The transfer of technology can be within the country as well from other developing countries also. The project proponent could develop a new methodology for its project activity or could use one of the approved methodologies by the CDM Executive Board. For small-scale CDM projects, the project proponent can use the simplified procedures. The project proposal should Indicate the formulae used for calculating GHG offsets in the project and baseline scenario.

Leakage, if any, within or outside the project boundary, should be clearly described. Determination of alternative project, which would have come up in absence of proposed CDM project activity should also be described in the project proposal. The project report and CDs should be forwarded through covering letter signed by the project sponsors. The project report submitted should be properly bound. The National CDM Authority examines the documents and if there are any preliminary queries the same are asked from the project proponents.

The project proponent and his consultants are normally given about days notice to come to the Authority meeting , and give a brief power point presentation regarding their CDM project proposals. Members seek clarifications during the presentation and in case the members feel that some additional clarifications or information is required from the project proponent the same is informed to the presenter.

Coalmine gas projects may thus be eligible for emissions reduction credits - or other. Greenhouse gas emission reduction credits also may be available for projects that utilize or destroy coalmine gas. By preventing this powerful greenhouse gas from escaping to the atmosphere, such projects can mitigate global climate change.

An active greenhouse gas market has emerged, however, and brokers have supported numerous transactions whereby parties that may benefit from offsetting carbon emissions have purchased the right to tradable credits that might exist in the future. These purchase options have already aided in developing projects that reduce methane emissions. Per unit of energy, combustion of natural gas results in 42 percent less carbon dioxide emissions than coal and 29 percent less than residual fuel oil. Significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions could be made through fuel switching, for example, from residual fuel oil to natural gas.

If the captured CH4 is used as energy source on-site or delivered into a pipeline the full 21 tonnes of GHG reductions can be claimed. Since the project aims at capturing methane and using if' as energy resource, the project would be eligible for 21 tonnes of GHG reductions per 1 tonne of methane.

The methane captured over the lifetime of the project is estimated at k of 3. The total carbon credits the project would be eligible for is Assuming these credits are traded at a price of USD 5 per Credit, the cash-flows the project can be tremendously enhanced. If Carbon credits are factored in financials of the project along with the cost incurred for availing the carbon credit benefit under CDM, these credits can increase the IRR by around 2.

The project is expected to improve coalmine methane and coal bed methane extraction, distribution, and utilization at mines around Fuxin, Liaoning Province. UT'I Bank has assessed the viability of the project under the impact of various scenarios by carrying out sensitivity analysis under various scenarios, which seek to present the financial results in case of changes in the key assumptions. Based on the appraisal exercise, it may be concluded that the project is viable under the Base Case scenario under both the scenarios.

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The sensitivity analysis also shows that the project is viable under various adverse scenarios. It is expected that the returns from with project would further improve as the financial projections have been made at a conservative estimate of The preliminary analysis done by ONGC suggests that there is good potential demand of gas in the nearby markets and thus the prices are likely to improve in comparison to the prices assumed for financial projections.

Also, the eligibility of the project for carbon credits may further improve the profitability of the project. A study has also been carried out to assess the potential risks to the project and the expected risk mitigation mechanisms. The study indicates that the offtake risk is low due to existing demand of Gas in the area. The cost and time over run risks are being mitigated adequately by ONGC by entering into LSTK contracts with reputed CBM Service Providers and including suitable performance clauses to allocate these risks, to the extent possible, to the third parties.

U.S. Army Medical Department journal

Keeping in view the above analysis and subject to the investment risks and the impact of the various scenarios as discussed under the sensitivity analysis, the capital expenditure; program of ONGC for the proposed project is considered financially and commercially viable. Lacs 25 Rs. Lacs Quantity Lac 51 9 34 3 Lac per day 7. Lac 1 Well Site 38 Rs. Lac 2 3 Well Site Lac 3 Lac New Road 13 Rs. Lac per km 12 Upgradation of Old Road9 Rs. Lac per Km Culvert 0. LacQuantity Total Amount in Rs. Lac Interpretation Costs of all logs 3.

Lac in Rs. Lac 8, 1, Capex in Rs. Lac 17, Lac Drilling of 1 wells 1, Logging of 1 wells Lac 2, Lac 15, The project cost also includes the cost setting distribution network at Rs. Further, assuming an MOU with the supplier for 5 years for maintaining this rate of Rs. It is found that power costs are the biggest component of the Operating Expenses throughout the lifetime of project. However this being a pilot phase it was not found appropriate to go in for captive generation at this stage and thus this option may be looked at during the expansion phase.

The total drilling cost of 14 wells, without considering different contingencies to be paid for execution of the work, is Rs. In case of CBM horizontal wells, comparatively lesser number of work over jobs are anticipated due to no zone transfer etc. Accordingly, only 2. Manpower Approximate manpower of different disciplines and their annual expenditure shall be as follows. Maintenance of Project Establishments These shall include civil, electric, communication and.

Manpower Cost for Project Office There shall be a multi-disciplinary technical team for supervision of entire work during its execution and maintaining the field afterwards. This manpower shall be stationed in the Project Office. It is estimated that out of strength of 20 at Project office, 15 executives and 5 supporting staff will be dedicated for supervision and monitoring of present work. Their expenditures are considered Rs. Once the physical activities are over in first 3 years, it is planned to reduce the manpower to half dedicated for the present work. The full load fuel consumption or SCMD for the compressor into account. Effective corporate tax rate is taken as Beta of the stock taken from Bloomberg is 0.

Expected market return has been taken as Mongan Stanley Capital International's country indices. Cost of Debt The Cost of debt for the company is assumed to be 7. Year ending Mar 31 Revenues 0. Production 0. As on Mar 31 Equity Balance Total Year ending Mar 31 Sources of Cash Equity Ending Mar 31 Revenues 0. Equity In Jharia Block, as per Contract with Govt. For the Pilot Phase of Jharia, Bokaro and North Karanpura Blocks, after the in principle approval of EC, as mentioned above, it is now proposed to carry out dolling, completion and testing activities in the three Blocks as per following break-up: Block Pilot Well Type Vertical Horizontal Jharia Parbatpur, outside 6 sq.

The work schedule shall spread over a period of 31 months from the date of award. ONCC's role in this case shall be limited to obtaining statutory 3. The estimated cost includes all technical and non-technical contingencies. Block-wise break up of the costs shall be as follows: Block Cost Estimate Rs. Crore Jharia Locations of I exploratory wells have been released and are lined up for drilling by departmental rig.

Within Parbatpur, all the 9 pilot locations are released and lined up for drilling through proposed contractual services. Out of these 9 well locations, 3 are falling within the development area of 6 sq. The 2 pilot locations outside Parbatpur area shall' be released based upon sub-surface information, to be available from 8 boreholes and 2 exploratory wells.